Fermented foods and beverages are staples of the human diet. These foods have been consumed and produced since the start of human civilizations. Fermented foods are those foods which are grown through controlled microbial growth and enzymatic reactions.
Food fermentation processes can be categorized by the primary metabolites and microorganisms which involved alcohol, acetic acid, lactic acid, fatty acid, propionic acid and carbon dioxide. Food substrates can also describe fermentations. These foods include fish, meat, dairy, vegetable legumes, cereals, starchy roots, and grapes. Yeast or lactic acid bacteria ferment those materials which contain the high concentration of monosaccharides and disaccharides.
Benefit Of Fermented FoodFermentation is a biological method of food preservation. Food which is produced in this way that has reduced the risk of contamination. The fermented food contains the desirable tasted and textures which are missing in starting materials for example table olives are inedible without the chemical. In addition to this fermented food also promote human health which is not the attribute of the starting food material. This outcome of fermentation is basically the contribution of microbes. Many studies show that consumption of fermented dairy food is linked to maintenance of weight.
Frequent consumption of yogurt help in the reduction of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The benefits might extend to immediate physiological responses. It was found that fermented milk consumption improves glucose metabolism and reduced muscle soreness induced by acute exercise. It is also found that fermented food consumption can alter mood and brain activity too. Several peptides and peptide fractions having bioactive properties have been isolated from sour milk, kefir, dahi, and other fermented food products.
These and other peptides are being investigated for their anti-hypertensive, anti-thrombotic, satiety, opioid, immuno-modulatory, osteogenic, and antioxidant effects. Of particular interest are the peptides present in fermented dairy products that have activity as anti-hypertensive angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid with putative atheroprotective properties, can be enriched by LAB that possesses linoleate isomerase. In plant and vegetable fermentations, the growth of LAB enhances conversion of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. The activation of these flavonoids activate the master regulator of oxidant stress responses in mammals and thereby induce the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes which protect against oxidative and chemical damage.
Bioactive And Nutritive CompoundsFermentation can result in new compounds with health modulating potential. One such metabolite is the lactic acid which has shown the reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion which is bone marrow derived macrophage and dendritic cell. Lactic acid also alters the reactive oxygen species in the intestine. Certain bacteria in plant and dairy foods produce vitamins including folate, riboflavin, B12 and Vitamin B. Amino acid and derivatives with neurotransmitter and immunomodulatory functions are also synthesized during fermentation. In addition to all these certain proteins are also produced which act as an anti-oxidants and prevent adhesion of pathogens to the intestinal mucosa.
Microbes To The Digestive Tract
Fermented food and beverages are the best way of transferring a large amount of live microorganism into the digestive tract. Which survive passage through the human digestive tract. The hypothesis proposes that such microbial exposures are essential for normal development of immune system and neural function. Therefore consumption of fermented foods are the indirect means of those microorganisms which are good for the development of immune system. Fermented foods show particular potential as a practical vehicle in which to provide established probiotic strains.
Probiotic MicroorganismBacteria are not always bad for health. Few species of bacteria are known as good bacteria which are good for the health of digestive track. Fermented food is full of probiotic bacteria. Probiotic are naturally present in the body. Probiotic help moves food through the gut. Researchers have found out that probiotics are involved in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, infectious diarrhea, and antibiotic-related diarrhea.
It is good to have fermented food in your daily diet as they increase the dishes on your table and keep you healthy.